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The following work analyses reporting systems in the field of aviation and describes their historical development and importance. The proposed research has used the primary data collection technique and academically published papers that show the consequences for those involved if a reporting system is not implemented. At the same time, it was investigated whether and how these hazards related reporting could have changed its history. The result was that the current form of reporting system would have influenced the course and protected the incidents in the last two decades. Unfortunately, although there are already isolated reporting systems, there is still no procedure that offers holistic protection to the reporting.
Chapter 1: Introduction
The following work examines the existing reporting systems in aviation and shows; reporting systems are of immense importance in the aviation industry. The aeroplane is considered one of the safest means of transport today, as fewer accidents occur than buses, trains, or ships (Xue, et al., 2018). In addition, the level of security is increasing worldwide. Nevertheless, if something happens anyway, a comparatively large number of people are affected. With the help of functioning reporting systems, many aircraft accidents could have been prevented in advance, through which the flight personnel would have reported faults to a competent authority (Xue, et al., 2018).
An effective reporting system not only saves lives it also protects the airline from financial damages and is at the same time a preventive measure. Because of this, the work aims to analyse existing aviation reporting systems and to show to what extent they can improve flight safety via an effective report system so that the issues can be identified timely (Case et al., 2018). Furthermore, using different examples, possible effects occur if there is no reporting system and considerations are made as to how functioning systems would have changed something in those specific cases. Finally, the importance of reporting systems in aviation should be worked out and show what influence they have on air traffic safety.
Countries around the world are generally optimistic about the future development of the global air transport market. According to the predictions of relevant agencies, in the next 20 years, the average annual growth rate of global GDP will be 2.8%. As a result, the average yearly growth rate of air passenger turnover (RPK) will be 4.4%~4.7 %, which is still in the rapid growth range, maintaining a moderate growth trend of doubling every 15 years (Bağan et al., 2019). However, the structure of global aviation needs to undergo significant adjustments, and air transport will gradually shift from being mainly between developed countries to emerging economies (Miller et al., 2018).
To meet the needs of future air transportation development, the significant countries currently competing in the global aviation market have begun to take action to improve their reporting system and support capabilities, and a new round of global aviation hub infrastructure construction has already started to report the issues so that the major and minor accidents can be controlled timely (Davies et al., 2017). In the plans to upgrade the reporting system of significant hub airports globally, strengthening the promotion and application of new technologies to improve reporting system efficiency is an integral part (Davies et al., 2017).
The aviation industry intends to invest more than 600 million euros in improving the reporting system that will eventually help the passengers in check-in facilities and enhance the airport’s efficiency and the passenger service experience (Sarkheil et al., 2020). The reason behind this change, in recent years, the aviation industry has not paid much attention to the hazard reporting for which the numbers of accidents have occurred in the last two decades which with proper reporting system or the issues if had reported timely could have saved numbers of lives and planes at the same time. Adhered to high standards and high quality to promote hub airports’ reporting system and make every effort to encourage the positive reporting system (Sarkheil et al., 2020).
The essay discusses the international monetary system. This topic is not easy but equally significant; however, whatsoever is an incomprehensible subject that involves the instances for the monetary facets of the economies. Gradually, monetary economics is learned based on the economic models that can apply to the present state. Nevertheless, these models are not implemented in the past, but the past can enthuse the present (Barpedia, 2021). Hence, the gossips regarding the systems, to be more exact, regarding the gold standard system as an assurance of the money system. The Gold Standard system is the system in which almost all countries et the value of their monetary forms to the extent that a predefined measure of gold or affiliated to their money to that of a nation that did as such (Bayoumi and Eichengreen, 1995).
From Cantillon to current essayists, there has been a focal, repeating subject in financial aspects that gold is an optimal money related standard, locally and globally, because of its characteristics as a standard of significant worth and a trading method. This concise discussion proposes that monetary foundations essential for statehood changed after some time. The European nations will establish the emphasis of this paper, permit everyone to study this question for an incredibly intriguing period, for example, the nineteenth century, which saw present day financial development and industrialisation spreading past North-Western Europe and the rise of a worldwide economy typified by the gold standard. Further, this essay discusses the gold standard as to whether it has incremented or mitigated European states' role in managing money and the market at large.
The phenomenon of immigration is a critical challenge for every country regarding socio-economic terms (Grande et al., 2019). During the past two decades, the United Kingdom UK has gradually received migrants from all over the world into their state. The immigration rate in EU countries has risen in the last three decades. Nine million immigrants (7.4 million individuals of working age) are currently live in the UK. Thus, immigration has had a dynamic effect on the British economy, including salary and compensation, inflation, economic growth, productivity, and tax income (Howley et al., 2020).
Furthermore, immigration seems to have a huge influence on the Economy of the UK substantially. Initially, the population of commonwealth immigrants helped a lot in sustaining the services for transportation and healthcare. However, several successful British company owners and leaders have come to settle as a migrant in the United Kingdom. Immigration allows drastic improvement in efficiency by lowering the expense of complementary skills and increasing employees' incentives to better develop their skills for the UK's economy (Burnett and Chebe, 2020). To understand the impact of immigration on the UK's economy, the current study gives recent insights through authentic sources for reference.
2. Description of Literature and Data
In the literature section, the study provides details about immigration and its impact on the UK economy.
2.1. Immigration and its impact on UK's Economy
The immigration program is deemed the most successful way to monitor the workforce, particularly controlling population growth patterns (Vilella et al., 2020). To create a constructive effect from migrants, the country must incorporate them into the culture through an integration system (Dustmann and Frattini, 2014). However, integration is an essential aspect of the public recognition of minority communities. Integration is not necessarily the same for all; it relies on several variables such as immigration status, legal structure, and the country's economic conditions. In the context of the United Kingdom, UK, immigration plays the most significant role during the last two decades for the nation's success and growth (Coulter, 2018). It has helped the UK to become a more competitive and successful nation (Alfano et al., 2020). The immigrants are considered as the weak part of the population; therefore, they are responsible for two reasons of involving in inappropriate activities: firstly, the immigrant wants some work to be performed (for sustaining himself and his family) and to be willing to work with his company in a stronger position for oneself. Thus, immigrants help in contributing to the economy of the UK (Ruhs and Anderson, 2010).
Migrants usually appear to be of working age and moved to the UK to get an adequate job. They may carry investment income, but the immigration rate usually contributes to an increase in workforce, a decrease in the poverty rate, and an increase in the UK's economic potential production ability (Chakravorty, 2019). Additionally, the high immigration rate in the UK may lead to a high rate of aggregate demand. Migrants may help the economy to get stronger. A major cause for immigration is higher education. Around 485,645 overseas students studied in the UK in 2018/19. However, these students do not usually do something in long-term migration patterns; but the short-term effects are also very important (McLeay et al., 2020).
Recent migration statistics have revealed that nearly 6.2 million citizens of migrants residing in the UK in 2019 (UK Parliament). The increase in population may also lead to some negative consequences in UK's economy. Moreover, the increase in population may impose pressure on government, infrastructure and other services such as housing and healthcare, to accommodate the migrants and the native residents in the UK. An additional negative aspect is that the growing rate of migration is the risk of conﬂict between the residents and immigrants; the unemployment rate of native residents in the UK increases with the increasing immigration rate. However, the residents feel insecure regarding the unemployment. A previous study revealed that there is a negative link between immigrants' employment share and native employment ratio (Angioloni and Wu, 2020).
PART 1: Reflection on Learning
Part 1 of the portfolio includes discussions on self-awareness and self-efficacy to foster understanding of my beliefs, values, attitudes, knowledge, skills, and attributes for leadership development. According to Choperena et al. (2019), to become an effective leader, it is essential to understand your personality, motivation, and the values that drive me to maintain my curiosity about others and myself. In addition, reflection helps in emotional intelligence development; therefore, this part of the portfolio critically explores the contemporary management and leadership styles that I follow, impacting the inter-agency team relationships, organisational culture, and nursing practices, using Rolfe’s model of reflection (Salem, 2021).